6.    Critical Research Needs

Some of the research needs identified in 3 from the State-of-the-Art summary relate to critical issues identified in 5. These critical research needs are the following :


   Systematic, international evaluation of the results of test and demonstration projects (2.5.3)

   Development of improved forecasting tools, adapted to large geographically concentrated production of wind power, and evaluation of the reliability of existing forecasting tools (2.1.4).

   Development of suitable wind turbine (generator) models for dynamic grid simulation codes (in particular for variable speed wind turbines) (

   Development of methods to allow LSOWE plants to withstand transient external faults without disconnecting from the network (2.4.1)

   Analysis of the economical effect (cost) of increased primary control and secondary control requirements imposed on conventional generators ( and and analysis of the economical effect (cost) of requiring LSOWE plants to contribute to primary and secondary control ( and

   Generic evaluation of LSOWE investment costs taking into account cost influencing factors (distance from shore, water depth, wind and wave climate, soil conditions) (2.5.1).



1. Introduction
2. State-of-the-art Summary
3. Research Needs
4. Ranking
5. Critical Issues
6. Critical Research Needs
7. Reference List
8. List of Acronyms