3.    Research Needs

Some research needs which readily appear from the State-of-the-Art Summary are (but which are not necessarily critical research needs defined in Chapter 5) :


   Systematic evaluation of the results of test and demonstration projects (, 2.5.3, 2.5.4)

   Generic assessment of production-consumption unbalance based on : LSOWE plans in different countries, expected short-term and long-term variability (e.g. Based on reanalysis data), spatial correlation and cross-border transmission capacity with long-distance storage ( and

   Analysis of the economical effect (cost) of increasing the flexibility of conventional power plants to compensate for the variability of wind power, taking into account LSOWE plans in different countries (

   Evaluation of the feasibility and social acceptability of demand-side energy management measures to increase consumption when wind power is available (

   All Research aiming to decrease the cost of energy storage ( and and

   Development of improved forecasting tools, adapted to large geographically concentrated production of wind power, and evaluation of the reliability of existing forecasting tools (2.1.4).

   Development of methods to decrease currently required safety distances between sea cables ( ;

   Assessment of the reliability of VSC HVDC systems ; marinization of VSC HVDC systems ( and 2.2.3)

   Harmonisation of electrical protection and reactive power requirements ( and2.3.1.5)

   Study of the impact of grid limitations on offshore wind energy potential ; study of the relationship between technical-economical offshore wind energy potential and cost of required grid reinforcements (

   Development of suitable wind turbine (generator) models for dynamic grid simulation codes (in particular for variable speed wind turbines) (,

   Development of methods to allow LSOWE plants to withstand transient external faults without disconnecting from the network (2.4.1)


   Analysis of the economical effect (cost) of increased primary control and secondary control requirements imposed on conventional generators ( and and/or Analysis of the economical effect (cost) of requiring LSOWE plants to contribute to primary and secondary control ( and Research in support of finding a socially acceptable way of allocating the system cost created by LSOWE (grid reinforcement, priority access, increase control requirements for conventional plants, ) to the different stake-holders (LSOWE project owners, all generators, all customers, all tax-payers) (e.g.

   Generic evaluation of LSOWE investment costs taking into account cost influencing factors (distance from shore, water depth, wind and wave climate, soil conditions, ) (2.5.1).


1. Introduction
2. State-of-the-art Summary
3. Research Needs
4. Ranking
5. Critical Issues
6. Critical Research Needs
7. Reference List
8. List of Acronyms