Activities and Prospects

1. Introduction
2. Recent and Current Research Activities
3. Recent and Current Projects
4. National Plans
5. National Activities
6. Market Developments
7. Benefits to the Environment
8. Employment Prospects for Europe
9.Benefits for European Industry


[1] ?? G.A. Athanassoulis, E.K. Skarsoulis, "Wind and Wave Atlas of the Northeastern Mediterranean Sea", ENEY/KD-11/92, GEN/OK-20/92, 20+191 pp., July 1992

[2]?? G.A. Athanassoulis, M.T. Pontes, L. Tsoulos, B. Nakos, Ch.N. Stefanakos, A. Skopeliti, R. Frutuoso, "European Wave Energy Atlas: An Interactive PC-based system", Second European Wave Power Conference, 8-10 November, 1995, Lisbon, Portugal

[3]?? L. Cavaleri, G.A. Athanassoulis, S. Barstow, “Eurowaves: a user-friendly approach to the evaluation of near-shore wave conditions? 9th (1999) International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference and Exhibition, ISOPE 99, 30 May ?4 June 1999, Brest , France

[4]?? Voutsinas S. G., Riziotis V. A., (1999) “A Viscous-Inviscid Interaction Model for Dynamic Stall Simulations on Airfoils? 37th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, January 11-14, 1999, AIAA paper 99-0038

[5] ?? OWEN Workshop

[6] ?? Offshore-tuulivoima Perämeren jääolosuhteissa (Offshore wind energy production in the ice conditions of?the Gulf of Bothnia), Holttinen, Hannele; Liukkonen, Seppo; Furustam, Karl-Johan, Määttänen, Mauri; Haapanen, Erkki; Holttinen, Esa; 1998. VTT, Espoo. 118 s. + liitt. 13 s. (in Finnish, abstract in English), VTT Julkaisuja ?Publikationer - Publications : 828, ISBN 951-38-5001-3; Some of the results have been presented in OWEMES-conference: Offshore wind turbine foundations in ice infested waters; Haapanen Erkki, Määttänen Mauri and Koskinen Pekka, 1997. In Proceedings of European seminar Offshore wind energy in Mediterranean and other Eurpean seas OWEMES '97, 10-11.4.1997.

[7] ?? Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, O.; Hansen, S.O. (1999). Extreme winds in Denmark. RISØ-R-1068(EN). 51 p.;

[8] ?? Rathmann, O.; Kristensen, L.; Mann, J.; Hansen. S.O. (1999). Danish extreme wind atlas: Background and methods for a WAsP engineering option. IN: RISØ-R-1114(EN). p. 153-156;

[9] ?? Astrup, P.; Larsen, S.E. (1999). WAsP engineering flow model for wind over land and sea. RISØ-R-1107(EN). 24 p.;

[10] ? Kristensen, L.; Jensen, G. (1999). Geostrophic winds in Denmark: a preliminary study. RISØ-R-1145(EN). 43 p.;

[11] ? Mann, J.; Astrup, P.; Kristensen, L.; Rathman, O.; Hauge Madsen, P.; Heathfield, D. (2000). WAsP engineering DK. RISØ-R-1179(EN). 18 p

[12] ? H.G. Matthies, M. Meyer, C. Nath: Offshore-Windkraftanlagen: Kombination der Lasten von Wind und Wellen, In: DEWEK 2000 The Technical Conference 5. Deutsche Windenergiekonferenz.Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Editor): Conference Proceedings. Wilhelmshaven: DEWI, 2000, p. 225-229.

[13] ? T.G.van Engelen, T.D. Oei, H.C. Rieffe and J.B. Dragt. TURBU-I Computer program for turbulence load analysis of horizontal axis wind turbines : theory and program description, Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland [ECN], Petten 1991. Document number ECN-I-91-073.

[14] ? PHATAS-IV user's manual : Program for Horizontal Axis wind Turbine Analysis and Simulation, version IV. C. Lindenburg and T. Hegberg. Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland [ECN]. Petten, June 2000. Document number ECN-C-99-093.

[15] ? Energy Law- Decree on Obligation of Buying Power from RES (Polish)

[16] ? Υπουργική Απόφαση. Δ6/Φ1/ OIK.8295/19.4.1995, Εφημερίς της Κυβερνήσεως, Αρ. Φύλλου 385, 10/5/1995

[17]? Νόμος Αριθ. 2773, Εφημερίς της Κυβερνήσεως, Αρ. Φύλλου 286, 22/12/1999

[18]? Νόμος Αριθ. 2601, Εφημερίς της Κυβερνήσεως, Αρ. Φύλλου 81, 15/4/1998

[19]? Department of the Marine and Natural Resources. Investigations to begin on Suitability of Sites for offshore Wind Farms Press Release 4 September 2000.

[20] ? Department of Public Enterprise and Department of Enterprise Trade and Investment (2000) Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Resources in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

[21]? Department of Public Enterprise (1999) Green Paper on Sustainable Energy. Available at

[22] ? Department of the Marine and Natural Resources (2000) Offshore Electricity Generating Stations ?Note for Intending Developers Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Structures on the Marine Environment.

[23] ? Marine Institute (2000) Assessment of Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Structures on the Marine Environment

[24] ? Eirtricity (2000) Article posted 6 November 2000.

[25] ? Powergen Renewables (2000) Powergen Renewables Offshore Developments

[26] ? ‘North Sea Offshore Wind ?A Powerhouse for Europe?by DEWI for Greenpeace October 2000

[27] ? DTI ‘The Renewables Obligation- Preliminary Consultation?/p>

[28] ? UK Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions; Climate Change- Draft UK Programme March 2000.

[29] ? Forum for the Future, Cambridge Econometrics ‘Power for the New Millennium. Benefiting from Tomorrow’s Renewable Energy Markets?May 1999

[30] ?

[31] ? K. Löwe; Bundesministerium f? Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit: Motivation und Ziele des F+E-Vorhabens“Weiterer Ausbau der Windenergienutzung im Hinblick auf den Klimaschutz? In: Offshore-Windenergienutzung: Technik, Naturschutz, Planung.Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Editor):Workshop Proceedings. Wilhelmshaven: DEWI, 2000, p. 4-8.

[32] ? D?rschmidt, Statement on the Workshop “Weiterer Ausbau der Windenergienutzung im Hinblick auf den Klimaschutz? organised by and held at Deutsches Windenergie-Institut, Wilhelmshaven, 4.-5. April 2000.

[33] ? Act on Granting Priority to Renewable Energy Sources ( Renewable Energy Sources Act).

[34] ? Energy 21 - and

[35] ? The Offshore Wind-farm Working Group (1997): ”Action Plan for the Offshore Wind Farms in Danish Waters? The Offshore Wind-Farm Working Group of the Danish Electricity Companies and the Danish Energy Agency ?Haslev.

[36] ? Forum for Energy and Development (2000): “Windforce 10?(A blueprint to achieve 10% of the world’s electricity from wind power by 2020),

[37] ? Department of Public Enterprise (1999) Green Paper on Sustainable Energy ?

[38] ? ESB (2000) Generation Requirements to 2006 ?

[39] ? Renewable Energy Strategy Group (2000) ‘Strategy for Intensifying Wind Energy Deployment?-

[40] ? Digest of United Kingdom statistics 2000

[41] ? From “A plan of action for Europe: Wind energy - the facts?European Commission (1999) ISBN 92-828-4571-0:

[42] ? “Environmental emissions from energy technology systems: the total fuel cycle?Proc. IEA/OECD Expert Seminar, Paris (12-14 April 1989)

[43] ? “The Potential of Wind Energy to Reduce CO2 Emissions?IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme Report No. PH3/24 (October 2000):

[44] ? DWTMA.?“Employment in the Wind Power Industry.”  Wind Power Note. No2, March 1996.?Available at

[45] ? EWEA, Forum for Energy and Development, Greenpeace International.? “Windforce 10.?A Blueprint to Achieve 10% of the World’s Electricity from Wind Power by 2020.

[46] ? Forum for the Future., Cambridge Econometrics.?“Power for the New Millennium.?Benefiting from Tomorrow’s Renewable Energy Markets.”  May 1999.

[47] ? ECOTEC.?“The Potential Contribution of Renewable Energy Schemes to Employment Opportunities.”  ETSU K/PL/00109/REP.?1995

[48] ? ESD, FoE.?“Cutting CO2 ?Creating Jobs.?An Economic Analysis of Policies to Cut UK CO2 Emissions by 20% or More.”  1998

[49] ? North Energy Associates.?“Survey of Employment in the UK Wind Energy Industry 1993-95”  ETSU W/13/00354/47/REP.?1996

[50] ? EUFORES-led Altener project, contract number 4.1030/E/97/009.?“The impact of renewables on employment and economic growth.”  Results available on

[51] ? ESD for Greenpeace.?“Offshore wind, onshore jobs.?A new world-class British Energy Industry for the Millennium.?/p>

[52] ? Border Wind for Greenpeace.?“Offshore Wind Energy.?Building a New Industry for Britain.”  June 1998.

[53] ? Ch. Strunk-St?kemann (Editor): ?Directory of German Wind Energy 1998? Deutsches Windenergie-Institut, Wilhelmshaven,1998.

[54] ? DLR/WI/ZSW/IWR/Forum: “Klimaschutz durch Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien? Final Report, 2000

[55] ? European Commission: “Energy for the Future: Renewable Sources of Energy?White Paper for a Community strategy and Action Plan COM(97)599 final 26/11/97

[56] ? Ernst and Young: “Renewable Energy Support Services as Exports?K/BD/00150/REP/1

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