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Grid issues: Germany
Plans and Prospects
Offshore areas North Sea: Borkum, Helgoland, Sylt, open North Sea
Planned offshore windpower 20.4 GW (41.3 GW beyond 2020)
timing 2020
Transmission System
TSOs RWE Transportnetz Strom GmbH, E.ON Netz GmbH, Vattenfall Europe Transmission GmbH, EnBW Transportnetze AG
Control zones and operators One control zone per TSO:RWE Transportnetz Strom GmbH (west), E.ON Netz GmbH (centre), Vattenfall Europe Transmission GmbH (east), EnBW Transportnetze
Synchronous Zone UCTE
Final electricity consumption (2002) [TWh] 498,8
Generation capacity (2002) [GW] 125,0
Peak load (2002)
Minimum load (2002)
Power Generation Portfolio [GW]
Nuclear 23,40
Thermal (non-nuclear) 81,09
Hydro 8,48
Wind 12,00
others 0,00
Offshore Power Injection
Suited Substations North Sea: Böxlund, Brunsbüttel (Vattenfall E.), Brunsbüttel (E.ON), (areas Sylt, Helgoland),
Substation Voltage today all 380 kV, with exception of Maade, Emden/Borssum: 220 kV
Offshore power limit after installation of phase shifters at substations Brunsbüttel and Diele, extensions of several existing lines inland, extension of substations (inland), provision of capacitors (inland): 476 MW offshore (2007 scenario) could be connected as scheduled but need to be curtailed at high wind/low load
Grid issues
Grid code requirements Power quality, power control not required but power curtailment, frequency control not required, voltage control (reactive power) voltage and frequency ride through.
Balancing Via TSO per control zone, no penalties for unbalance
Transmission bottlenecks generally: bottlenecks for power transmission from the rural Baltic and North Sea regions to the load centres: Rhein/Ruhr, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, München
Necessary reinforcements For 2020 scenario: many extensions, reinforcemens, new lines. Especially: 2 HVDC lines of a total 1050 km to the South west and South
Timing of reinforcements by 2007 only reinforcements or extensions of existing systems, no new lines; subsequenlty also new lines for 20 GW offshore in 2020
External Factors
Import/export/transit Power transit from Scandinavia leads to congestion in the North already today
other factors
Trans Border Capacities
Offshore Cable
Connection, first projects
Landing, first projects
Best option, long term Assumption: Mainly initially 150 kV, later 220 kV and 400 kV gas insulated cables (GIL) Parks should be clustered in groups of several MW at an offshore substation, substations will be connected to shore via as little as possible GIL routes (2010 to 2020): environmental issue of passing the Wadden Sea (North Sea) and the Bodden Seas (Baltic)
Connection and energy pricing
Connection charges for DG
Connection charges for offshore wind shallow
Priority access for renewables yes, guaranteed by law (Erneuerbare Energien Gesetz)
Minimum price minimum during minimum 12 yrs at least, calculation of period and precise price according to EEG

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Updated September 2008